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What type of gem is the 563 carat Star of India?
What is the name of the 95.5 carat diamond located in the Smithsonian Museum?
What is green chalcedony spotted with red jasper better known as?
What silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine is the birthstone of November?
What metal comes from cuprite and chalcopryte ore?
What is iron pyrite better known as?
What is the name of the super-continent that dominated the Earth 240 million years ago?



World’s hardest mineral Diamond

Diamond material Carbon

Green beryl gem Emerald

“Mutton fat” nephrite Jade

Yellow or golden gem Topaz

Purple quartz Amethyst

Gem named after a tsarina Alexandrite

Gem found in Tanzania Tanzanite

Green chalcedony spotted with red jasper Bloodstone

Reddish-brown gem Garnet

Black organic gem Jet

Opaque blue or azure gemstone (sometimes flecked) Lapis lazuli

Purple corundum Sapphire

Red corundum Ruby

Star of India and Kashir Blue type of gems Sapphire

95.5 carat diamond in the Smithsonian Hope Diamond

Largest gem quality diamond Golden Jubilee Diamond (546 carats)

Largest rough diamond ever discovered Cullinan Diamond (3,107 carats)

Diamond in Titanic Heart of the Ocean

Birth Stones:

January Garnet

February Amethyst

March Aquamarine

April Diamond

May Emerald

June Pearl

July Ruby

August Peridot

September Sapphire

October Opal

November Topaz

December Turquoise

Other Facts:

Study of Earth’s physical properties Geophysics

Study of the motion of Earth’s plates Tectonics

Study of rocks Petrology

Earth’s age 4.5 billion years

Earth’s outer layer Crust

Earth’s layer below the crust Mantle

Current geologic period Quaternary

Current geologic epoch Holocene

Current geologic era Cenozoic (recent life)

Middle geologic era Mesozoic (middle life)

Early geologic era Paleozoic (ancient life)

Ancient super continent, 240 million years ago Pangaea

Northern super continent, 120 million years ago Laurasia

Southern super continent, 120 million years ago Gondwana

Earth’s energy Geothermal

Ocean surrounded by volcanic “ring of fire” Pacific

Large volcanic crater Caldera

Scale measuring earthquake intensity Richter scale

Tidal wave caused by an earthquake Tsunami

Fool’s gold Iron pyrite

Uranium and radium ore Pitchblende

Aluminum ore Bauxite

Mercury ore Cinnabar

Copper ore Cuprite

Lead ore Galena

Hard carbon Diamond

Soft carbon Graphite

Hard coal Anthracite

Soft coal Bituminous

Brown coal Lignite

Deep black lignite Jet

Dense rock formed from cooling lava Basalt

Glass formed from cooling lava Obsidian

Three types of rock Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic

Earth’s crust most abundant rock Igneous

Most common igneous rock Granite

Soft igneous rock Pumice

Coarse grain rock Gneiss

Translucent gypsum Alabaster

Shale rock type Sedimentary

Cave ceiling fixtures Stalactites

Cave floor fixtures Stalagmites

Stalactite and stalagmite combination Column

Scale measuring mineral hardness Moh’s scale

Diamond rating on Moh’s scale Ten

Ruby rating on Moh’s scale Nine

Talc rating on Moh’s scale One

Large California fault line San Andreas Fault

Large east Africa fault line Great Rift Valley

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